In the process of deep hole drilling, to improve the cutting efficiency, improve the accuracy of the workpiece, reduce the surface roughness of the workpiece, and extend the tool life, it is necessary to reduce the friction between the tool and the workpiece and the chips.
To achieve this goal, on the one hand, we can develop high-hardness and high-temperature-resistant tool materials, and on the other hand, we can use cutting fluids with excellent performance.
Therefore, the use of cutting fluid plays a very important role in reducing the surface roughness of the workpiece, extending the life of the tool, and improving the cutting efficiency.
The performance requirements of deep hole drilling machines for cutting fluid have the following aspects:
The cooling effect is to rely on the convection heat exchange and vaporization of the cutting fluid to take the cutting heat away from the solid (tools, workpieces, and chips), reduce the temperature of the cutting zone, reduce the deformation of the workpiece, and maintain the hardness and size of the tool.
The cooling effect is also related to the foam. Because the inside of the foam is air, the thermal conductivity of the air is poor, and the cooling effect of the cutting fluid with more foam will be reduced.
Therefore, a small amount of emulsified silicone oil is added to the synthetic cutting fluid containing surfactants. To the defoaming effect.
In the cutting process, if the workpiece is in contact with the corrosive medium generated by the decomposition or oxidative deterioration of water and cutting fluid, such as contact with sulfur, sulfur dioxide, chloride ion, acid, hydrogen sulfide, alkali, etc., it will be corroded. The contact parts will also corrode.
Therefore, the cutting fluid must have good rust resistance, which is one of the most basic properties of the cutting fluid. Titanium alloy cutting oil, stainless steel cutting oil, deep hole drilling cutting oil, and stamping drawing oil generally have a certain anti-rust ability.
If the storage period between processes is not long, anti-rust additives can not be added because the cutting oil is added with petroleum Anti-rust additives such as barium sulfonate will reduce the anti-wear performance of the cutting oil.
In the metal cutting process, cutting, iron powder, grinding chips, oil stains, etc. are easy to adhere to the surface of the workpiece, the tool, and the grinding wheel, which affects the cutting effect, and at the same time makes the workpiece and the machine tool dirty and difficult to clean, so the cutting fluid must be good The cleaning effect.
The cleaning effect of the cutting fluid should also be manifested in good separation and sedimentation of chips, grinding, iron powder, oil stains, etc.
The circulating cutting fluid can quickly make the cutting chips, iron powder, abrasion dust, particles, etc. settle on the bottom of the container and suspend on the liquid surface after returning to the cooling tank so that the cutting fluid can be maintained after repeated use Clean, ensure processing quality and prolong the use cycle.
In the cutting process, friction occurs between the tool and the cutting, the tool, and the workpiece surface, and the cutting fluid is the lubricant to reduce this friction. The lubrication effect of cutting fluid is generally better than water-based cutting fluid, and oil-based cutting fluid with oily and extreme pressure additives has a better effect.
Oily additives are generally long-chain organic compounds with extreme pressure groups, such as higher fatty acids, higher alcohols, animal and vegetable oils, and so on.
Oil-based additives form a lubricating film on the surface of the metal through the polar base adsorption, reducing the friction between the tool and the workpiece, the tool, and the chip, to reduce the cutting resistance, extend the tool life, and reduce the surface roughness of the workpiece.
According to the above requirements, it is necessary to add high-efficiency extreme pressure and anti-wear additives, friction modifiers, etc. to the base oil, so that the base oil contains sulfur and chlorine extreme pressure additives can effectively prevent the metal contact surface from sintering; reduce tool wear, improve tool life.
Besides, it contains a high-permeability fat lubricant, which reduces the frictional resistance and operating load of the cutting edge, while improving the machining accuracy and reducing the surface roughness of the workpiece.